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EUROPE IS A CONTINENT LOCATED ENTIRELY IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE AND MOSTLY IN THE EASTERN HEMISPHERE. EUROPE IS BORDERED BY THE ARCTIC OCEAN TO THE NORTH, THE ATLANTIC OCEAN TO THE WEST, AND THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA TO THE SOUTH. IT COMPRISES THE WESTERNMOST PART OF EURASIA. EUROPE IS GENERALLY CONSIDERED AS SEPARATED FROM ASIA BY THE WATERSHED DIVIDES OF THE URAL AND CAUCASUS MOUNTAINS, THE URAL RIVER, THE CASPIAN AND BLACK SEAS, AND THE WATERWAYS OF THE TURKISH STRAITS.[5] YET THE NON-OCEANIC BORDERS OF EUROPE—A CONCEPT DATING BACK TO CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY—ARE ARBITRARY AND AMOUNT TO A HISTORICAL AND SOCIAL CONSTRUCT. THE PRIMARILY PHYSIOGRAPHIC TERM "CONTINENT" AS APPLIED TO EUROPE ALSO INCORPORATES CULTURAL AND POLITICAL ELEMENTS WHOSE DISCONTINUITIES ARE NOT ALWAYS REFLECTED BY THE CONTINENT'S CURRENT OVERLAND BOUNDARY WITH ASIA.
EUROPE COVERS ABOUT 10,180,000 SQUARE KILOMETRES OR 2% OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE (6.8% OF LAND AREA). POLITICALLY, EUROPE IS DIVIDED INTO ABOUT FIFTY SOVEREIGN STATES OF WHICH THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IS THE LARGEST AND MOST POPULOUS, SPANNING 39% OF THE CONTINENT AND COMPRISING 15% OF ITS POPULATION. EUROPE HAD A TOTAL POPULATION OF ABOUT 741 MILLION (ABOUT 11% OF WORLD POPULATION) AS OF 2016. THE EUROPEAN CLIMATE IS LARGELY AFFECTED BY WARM ATLANTIC CURRENTS THAT TEMPER WINTERS AND SUMMERS ON MUCH OF THE CONTINENT, EVEN AT LATITUDES ALONG WHICH THE CLIMATE IN ASIA AND NORTH AMERICA IS SEVERE. FURTHER FROM THE SEA, SEASONAL DIFFERENCES ARE MORE NOTICEABLE THAN CLOSE TO THE COAST.
EUROPE, IN PARTICULAR ANCIENT GREECE, WAS THE BIRTHPLACE OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION. THE FALL OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, DURING THE MIGRATION PERIOD, MARKED THE END OF ANCIENT HISTORY AND THE BEGINNING OF AN ERA KNOWN AS THE MIDDLE AGES. RENAISSANCE HUMANISM, EXPLORATION, ART, AND SCIENCE LED TO THE MODERN ERA. FROM THE AGE OF DISCOVERY ONWARDS, EUROPE PLAYED A PREDOMINANT ROLE IN GLOBAL AFFAIRS. BETWEEN THE 16TH AND 20TH CENTURIES, EUROPEAN POWERS CONTROLLED AT VARIOUS TIMES THE AMERICAS, MOST OF AFRICA, OCEANIA, AND THE MAJORITY OF ASIA.
THE FRENCH ENLIGHTENMENT, THE SUBSEQUENT REVOLUTION AND THE NAPOLEONIC WARS ARE EVENTS THAT DEEPLY MODELED AND STRUCTURED THE FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT, CULTURALLY, POLITICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY FROM THE END OF THE 17TH CENTURY TILL THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, WHICH BEGAN IN GREAT BRITAIN AT THE END OF THE 18TH CENTURY, GAVE RISE TO RADICAL ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN WESTERN EUROPE, AND EVENTUALLY THE WIDER WORLD.
BOTH WORLD WARS TOOK PLACE FOR THE MOST PART IN EUROPE, CONTRIBUTING TO A DECLINE IN WESTERN EUROPEAN DOMINANCE IN WORLD AFFAIRS BY THE MID-20TH CENTURY AS THE SOVIET UNION AND THE UNITED STATES TOOK PROMINENCE. DURING THE COLD WAR, EUROPE WAS DIVIDED ALONG THE IRON CURTAIN BETWEEN NATO IN THE WEST AND THE WARSAW PACT IN THE EAST, UNTIL THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1989 AND FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL.

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